SJ Quinney College of Law, University of Utah


In a sense, war has not changed. The end results will always remain the same: death and destruction; even if that destruction is not fully tangible. The results may be instantaneous, or they may be delayed. It is only the means implemented to achieve these destructive ends that evolve. Cyberwarfare is a product of that evolution. Most importantly, we must always remain abreast of evolution and the changes in warfare in order to effectively and efficiently respond to new attacks, and to prevent them as well.

This Note sheds light on recent evolution in warfare. It enlightens the reader of the history and science behind cyberattacks through recent incidents involving cyber; argues that cyberattacks can constitute an act of war in international law by triggering the right to self-defense; proposes a tiered analysis in order to effectively, proportionally, and legally respond to attacks in cyberspace; and recommends that the international and national community take the necessary measures to implement this suggestion in order to prepare for the inevitable: a devastating cyberattack.